The most common symptoms include sudden severe headache with nausea and vomiting, double vision or loss of vision, change in mental status, loss of eye muscle control, and meningismus (symptoms associated with irritation of the brain and spinal cord). Other symptoms can include fever, pituitary failure, loss of consciousness, hypothalamic failure and death.
Causes and Risk Factors
Pituitary apoplexy tends to occur most often in large tumors, macroadenomas. Pituitary apoplexy sometimes occurs as a result of bleeding into a normal pituitary gland; this most often happens in patients who have diabetes mellitus.