The Renal Pathology service reviews approximately 3,000 cases annually, for primary diagnosis and consultation/second opinion. All biopsies are assessed by light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Special stains are used as needed to evaluate viruses, collagen type (IV) chains, IgG subtypes, amyloid types, etc. Approximately 80% of cases are native renal biopsies, and the remainder are transplants. Non-neoplastic portions of nephrectomy and autopsy kidneys, and allograft nephrectomies also are evaluated.