The doctor will pass a thin flexible tube with a light at the end (flexible endoscope) into the nostril to look at the hypopharynx. A local anesthetic spray might be used to numb your nose and throat. You will be instructed not to eat or drink anything for an hour afterwards or until your throat is no longer numb.
If a tumor is suspected, the doctor will take a biopsy and a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope.
Most hypopharyngeal cancers are one of three types of squamous cell carcinomas:
- Keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
- Non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
- Undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carcinoma
The doctor may also order other tests:
- Blood tests
- Imaging studies to determine if the tumor has invaded nearby tissues or other organs in the body.
- Orthopantomography (Panorex) is a panoramic X-ray of the upper and lower jaw. It shows a view from ear to ear and it helps determine if a tumor has grown into the jaw bone.
- CT scan. A special type of x-ray that makes a series of detailed pictures, with different angles, of areas inside the mouth and neck. A computer is linked to the x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed in a pill to help highlight the organs or tissues on the x-ray. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). A machine that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed pictures of areas inside the mouth and neck. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
- PET scan. During a positron emission tomography scan (PET), a small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The scanner makes computerized pictures of the areas inside the body. Cancer cells absorb more radioactive glucose than normal cells, so the tumor is highlighted on the pictures.