Symptoms of neurosarcoidosis can vary depending on the areas that are affected and can be similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS).
If the condition is affecting the pituitary gland, symptoms may include:
- Changes in menstrual periods
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive urination
If the condition is affecting the brain or cranial nerves, symptoms may include:
- Confusion, disorientation
- Hearing loss
- Dizziness, vertigo, or abnormal sensations of movement
- Vision problems, such as double vision
- Facial palsy, which is characterized by weakness or drooping of the facial muscles
- Loss of sense of smell
- Loss of sense of taste, abnormal tastes
- Psychiatric disturbances
- Speech impairment
If the condition is affecting peripheral nerves, this can cause symptoms such as:
- Muscle weakness
- Numbness or tingling sensations
- Loss of movement
Causes and Risk Factors
The cause of neurosarcoidosis is unknown. Some factors thought to contribute to risk include infections, immune system disorders and genetics. It usually develops in people between the ages of 20 and 40. It is most common among Swedish and African-American people, although it can occur in anyone.
Patients with a history of sarcoidosis are at an increased risk of developing the condition.