Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Normal Reference Group Testing in Women

Inclusion Criteria

  • Women without signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia (chest pain, abnormal stress testing, abnormal noninvasive testing)
  • No cardiac risk factors by Framingham/NCEP criteria, age and matched to the coronary microvascular dysfunction population
  • Normal exercise stress test


Exclusion Criteria

  • Contraindications to CMR testing (metal devices in chest, claustrophobia, known angioedema)
  • Contraindication to Adenosine or Lexiscan (regadenoson) including heart block (second and third degree) and sinus node disease, significant COPD/asthma, or systemic hypotension (< 90 mmHg)
  • Contraindication to Dobutamine including severe systemic hypertension (≥ 220/120 mmHg), unstable angina, significant aortic valve stenosis, complex cardiac arrhythmia including uncontrolled atrial fibrillation, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, endocarditis, pericarditis, or uncontrolled congestive heart failure
  • Contraindication to gadolinium (renal impairment)
  • Any renal disease
  • Pregnant and lactating women
  • Inability to perform exercise, e.g., orthopedic limitations
  • Allergy to animal dander


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