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2 Blacksin MF, Benevenia J. Neoplasms of the scapula. American Journal of Radiology. 2000 June 174: 1729-35.

3 Malawer MM: Tumors of the shoulder girdle. Technique of resection and description of a surgical classification. Orthop Clin North Am. 1991 Jan;22(1):7-35.

4 Ozaki T, Putzke M, Rodl R, et al: Incidence and mechanisms of infiltration of sarcomas in the shoulder. Clin Orthop 2002, 395:209–215.

5 Sim FH, Pritchard DJ, Ivins JC. Forequarter amputation. Orthop Clin North Am 1977;8:921–931.

6 Liston R. Ossified aneurysmal tumor of the subscapular artery. Ediul Med J. 1820;16:66 70.


8 Pack GT, Baldwin JC. The Tikhoff–Linberg resection of the shoulder girdle. Case report. Surgery. 1955;38:755–7.

9 Baumann PK. Resection of the Upper Extremity in the region of the shoulder joint. Khirurg. Arkh. Velyaminova, St. Petersburg. 1914. 30:145-149.

10 Linberg BE. Interscapulothoracic resection for malignant tumors of the shoulder region. J Bone Joint Surg. 1928 10: 344-49.

11 Burwell HN. Resection of the shoulder with humeral suspension for sarcoma involving the scapula. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1965 May;47B:300-3.

12 Papioannou Anm Francis KC. Scapulectomy for the treatment of primary malignant tumors of the scapula. Clin. Orthop. 1965; 41:125.

13 Marcove RC, Lewis MM, Huvos AG. En-bloc upper humeral interscapulothoracic resection. The Tikhoff–Linberg procedure. Clin Orthop. 1977;124:219–28.

14 Whitehill R, Wanebo HJ, Mabie KN: Reconstruction after the Tikhoff-Linberg procedure. Arch Surg 117:1248-9, 1982.

15 Malawer MM, Sugarbaker PH, Lampert M, Baker AR, Gerber NL: The Tikhoff-Linberg procedure: report of ten patients and presentation of a modified technique for tumors of the proximal humerus. Surgery. 1985 May;97(5):518-28.

16 Craig EV, Thompson RC. Management of tumors of the shoulder girdle. Clin Orthop. 1987; 223:94-112.

17 Ham SJ, Hoekstra HJ, Schraffordt Koops H, Eisma WH, Oldhoff J. The interscapulothoracic amputation in the treatment of malignant diseases of the upper extremity with a review of the literature. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1993 Dec;19(6):543-8.

18 Hahn SB, Kim NH, Choi NH: Treatment of bone tumors around the shoulder joint by the Tikhoff-Linberg Procedure. Yonsei Medical Journal. 1990; 31(2): 110-22.

19 O’Connor M, Sim FH, Chao EYS. Limb salvage for neoplasms of the shoulder girdle: intermediate reconstructive and functional results. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1996;78: 1872–84.

20 Ham SJ, Hoekstra HJ, Eisma WH, Schraffordt Koops H, Oldhoff J. The Tikhoff-Linberg procedure in the treatment of sarcomas of the shoulder girdle. J Surg Oncol. 1993 Jun;53(2):71-7.

21 Asavamongkolkul A, Eckardt JJ, Eilber FR, Dorey FJ, Ward WG, Kelly CM, Wirganowicz PZ, Kabo JM. Endoprosthetic reconstruction for malignant upper extremity tumors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Mar;(360):207-20

22 Wittig JC, Bickels J, Wodajo F, Kellar-Graney KL, Malawer MM. Constrained total scapula reconstruction after resection of a high-grade sarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002 Apr;(397):143-55. 

23 Wodajo FM, Bickels J, Wittig J, Malawer M. Complex reconstruction in the management of extremity sarcomas. Curr Opin Oncol 2003, 15:304-312.

24 Malawer MM, Chou LB: Prosthetic survival and clinical results with use of large-segment replacements in the treatment of high-grade bone sarcomas. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995 Aug;77(8):1154-65.

25 Stryker Orthopaedics, Frequently Asked Questions in The Hip Scene Newletter. 2005 July 21.

26 Damron TA, Rock MG, O'Connor MI, Johnson M, Kai-Nan A, Pritchard DJ, Sim FH. Functional Laboratory Assessment After Oncologic Shoulder Joint Resections. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1998 March; (348):124-34.

27 Bickels J, Wittig JC, Kollender Y, Kellar-Graney K, Meller I, Malawer MM. Limb-sparing resections of the shoulder girdle. J Am Coll Surg. 2002 Apr; 348 (4):422-35.

28 Enneking WF, Dunham W, Gebhardt MC, Malawar M, Pritchard DJ. A system for the functional evaluation of reconstructive procedures after surgical treatment of tumors of the musculoskeletal system. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993 Jan;(286):241-6.